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5 April 2017

Testing TLS with Nova live migration

by Juan Antonio Osorio Robles

As part of the TLS everywhere work, I’ve been working on getting Nova’s live migration to work with TLS as well. This requires to set up libvirt’s remote transport URL to use TLS. Thankfully, to better understand this, libvirt’s documentation is actually pretty good.

A little research

From the configuration reference we can see that there are several defaults that we can take into account to make life easier. For instance, the default directory for both the client and server certificates are stored in /etc/pki/libvirt. The client certificate file’s default is clientcert.pem and the server certificate file’s default is servercert.pem. Also, libvirt needs a specific CA file to verify the certificates used, this defaults to using /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem.

Notes on GNUTLS

Libvirt uses GNUTLS as a backend library to handle TLS. This makes it a little different from how OpenSSL-based programs work.

OpenSSL has a default file for the CA bundle that it uses, which one could get with the following python code:

import ssl
print(ssl.get_default_verify_paths().openssl_cafile)

However, this is not the same file GNUTLS would use if you would try to use the default CA bundle or the “system trust”, which one can do via the gnutls_certificate_set_x509_system_trust function call. For instance, for Fedora, GNUTLS is compiled with the following flag:

...
--with-default-trust-store-pkcs11="pkcs11:model=p11-kit-trust;manufacturer=PKCS%2311%20Kit"
...

Which will use a pkcs11 URL instead of a file for the CA bundle. This is nice and all, but can be a little tricky, since there are certain limitations that are not apparent.

When I was trying to configure libvirt to use the same CA bundle as the one provided by OpenSSL I got a failure due to the file size. Digging further, it turns out that the function that GNUTLS uses to read CA files (which is gnutls_certificate_set_x509_trust_file) if reading from a file can only read files that have a maximum size of ~65.5K, being that it uses a size_t variable to get the read bytes from the file.

This is quite problematic, since the default OpenSSL CA bundle that comes from Fedora is around 200K in size. Another limitation is that libvirt can only read CA’s from files, and has no means to use pkcs11 URLs.

So taking all this into account, I opted for being explicit in the CA file that I set for /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem; being it the one CA file that signs the certificates for the overcloud services. And this being the default CA for Tripleo, FreeIPA, which has it’s CA pem file in /etc/ipa/ca.crt.

Environment setup

First off, we will need a setup will FreeIPA available, since we’ll be deploying a TLS-everywhere environment. We’ll need a very similar environment as described in this blog post with the main difference being that we need at least two computes to test the live migration.

quickstart now takes different configuration files for the topology of the nodes, so we’ll create a configuration file such as the following:

# Define a single controller node and a two compute nodes.
overcloud_nodes:
  - name: control_0
    flavor: control
    virtualbmc_port: 6230

  - name: compute_0
    flavor: compute
    virtualbmc_port: 6231

  - name: compute_1
    flavor: compute
    virtualbmc_port: 6232

You’ll also need to tell the overcloud deployment that you want to deploy more computes, so you need to specify it in your general configuration with something like this:

extra_args: >-
  --compute-scale 2

The rest of the configuration described in the blog post will remain the same.

So, run the quickstart.sh command, get a coffee, beer, go to the gym, or whatever you would like to do, and wait until it’s done.

Testing out live migration

Now that you have an environment set, make sure you can contact the overcloud via FQDNs (if not, you can run the overcloud-deploy-post.sh script in the stack user’s home directory and it’ll add the relevant entries to /etc/hosts.

Now, we need a VM that’s running in our overcloud in order to try to migrate it. For this, I merely used the overcloud-validate.sh script, which spawns a VM and creates the networks. However, I modified it so it won’t clean up after it’s done.

with the overcloud’s credentials we should check what hypervisors we have available.

(overcloud)$ openstack hypervisor list
+----+-------------------------------------+-----------------+--------------+-------+
| ID | Hypervisor Hostname                 | Hypervisor Type | Host IP      | State |
+----+-------------------------------------+-----------------+--------------+-------+
|  1 | overcloud-novacompute-1.example.com | QEMU            | 192.168.24.7 | up    |
|  2 | overcloud-novacompute-0.example.com | QEMU            | 192.168.24.9 | up    |
+----+-------------------------------------+-----------------+--------------+-------+

Having a VM running, we should inspect it to see what hypervisor it’s running on:

(overcloud)$ openstack server show Server1
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Field                               | Value                                     |
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                   | MANUAL                                    |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone         | nova                                      |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:host                | overcloud-novacompute-0.example.com       |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hypervisor_hostname | overcloud-novacompute-0.example.com       |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:instance_name       | instance-00000001                         |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state              | Running                                   |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state               | None                                      |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                 | active                                    |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at              | 2017-04-19T07:06:29.000000                |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at            | None                                      |
| accessIPv4                          |                                           |
| accessIPv6                          |                                           |
| addresses                           | default-net=192.168.2.103, 192.168.24.104 |
| config_drive                        |                                           |
| created                             | 2017-04-19T07:06:16Z                      |
| flavor                              | pingtest_stack-test_flavor-lgz6q2t5zq4l...|
| hostId                              | 4a961344ed67fb4ec77676f6fa719d805ae1162...|
| id                                  | 67e21344-c78e-42b7-b1b9-fabc08beb9fc      |
| image                               |                                           |
| key_name                            | pingtest_key                              |
| name                                | Server1                                   |
| progress                            | 0                                         |
| project_id                          | e6f9e9c9df0a4c5a933fc479fabba6fc          |
| properties                          |                                           |
| security_groups                     | name='pingtest-security-group'            |
| status                              | ACTIVE                                    |
| updated                             | 2017-04-19T07:06:29Z                      |
| user_id                             | e30fd0f4b59b4e309e483b391803139b          |
| volumes_attached                    | id='b5f799ac-a09e-4670-839c-5cd71a15c467' |
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

It’s running on overcloud-novacompute-0.example.com as pointed out by the OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hypervisor_hostname entry.

openstack server migrate --wait --live overcloud-novacompute-1.example.com Server1

After the migration is complete, you should see the changes reflected:

$ openstack server show Server1
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Field                               | Value                                     |
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                   | MANUAL                                    |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone         | nova                                      |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:host                | overcloud-novacompute-1.example.com       |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hypervisor_hostname | overcloud-novacompute-1.example.com       |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:instance_name       | instance-00000002                         |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state              | Running                                   |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state               | None                                      |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                 | active                                    |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at              | 2017-04-19T08:20:58.000000                |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at            | None                                      |
| accessIPv4                          |                                           |
| accessIPv6                          |                                           |
| addresses                           | default-net=192.168.2.103, 192.168.24.108 |
| config_drive                        |                                           |
| created                             | 2017-04-19T08:20:46Z                      |
| flavor                              | pingtest_stack-test_flavor-ihsr2xk3hr6c...|
| hostId                              | dde8b1db86db6c7ce9f11af7284d6b865525490...|
| id                                  | da5dc53f-5989-4873-a55d-1e4418fa4b04      |
| image                               |                                           |
| key_name                            | pingtest_key                              |
| name                                | Server1                                   |
| progress                            | 0                                         |
| project_id                          | e6f9e9c9df0a4c5a933fc479fabba6fc          |
| properties                          |                                           |
| security_groups                     | name='pingtest-security-group'            |
| status                              | ACTIVE                                    |
| updated                             | 2017-04-19T08:22:47Z                      |
| user_id                             | e30fd0f4b59b4e309e483b391803139b          |
| volumes_attached                    | id='658114dd-6b56-44ce-8a32-bebf18cf4bb5' |
+-------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

You can try doing this while having an active ssh connection to the server, pinging the IP address, and even deploying an application and poking it. Stuff should still work :D.

tags: tripleo - openstack

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